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Baden (1851-71, 1946-49)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A former grand duchy in southwestern Germany on the Rhine River. In 1870, it joined the German Empire. After World War II, Baden was included in the French zone of occupation, and separate issues were again in use from 1945-49, with some issues valid for use in the German Federal Republic until March 31, 1950.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A city in the province of Cordoba in southern Spain. In July 1937, contemporary Spanish stamps were overprinted to commemorate the anniversary of the Nationalist landing at Cadiz and the Nationalist occupation of Baena.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 262,034. A scattered group of some 700 islands and 2,000 islets in the Atlantic Ocean, east of Florida. One of the Bahamian islands, San Salvador (Watling Island) was the site of Columbus' first landfall in the New World. After Columbus, the Bahamas were largely bypassed by Europeans until British settlement began in 1647. In 1783, the Bahamas became a British colony. The Bahamas became self-governing in 1964 and fully independent in 1973. International banking and tourism are the country's major industries.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A state of Pakistan. In 1947, the Moslem emir declared independence from India and joined Bahawalpur to Pakistan.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 603,318. An archipelago in the Persian Gulf. Under British protection 1861-1971, Bahrain used a variety of stamps: Indian stamps from 1884 to 1933, overprinted Indian issues 1933-48, overprinted British issues 1948-60 and its own designs from 1960. Oil was first discovered in 1932 and, until the depletion of reserves in the 1970s, brought enormous wealth to this tiny country. Today, Bahrain is a center of international banking. Tensions between the Sunnite majority (60 percent) and Shi'ite minority (40 percent) have grown since the establishment of the fundamentalist Shi'ite regime in Iran. Violence in 1996 by Shi'ite dissidents brought a crackdown by the Sunni-led government.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A feudatory state in eastern India. Bamra issued separate stamps until 1894, when its issues were replaced by those of India.
Banat, Bacska (1919)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A district of south central Europe, formerly under Hungarian rule. In 1919, postal authorities at Temesvar overprinted Hungarian stamps, which were used largely to pay the salaries of postal workers. The area is now divided between Yugoslavia and Romania.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. The capital of Thailand. During 1855-85, Britain exercised extraterritorial privileges in Bangkok, which included the right to use its own stamps. Straits Settlements stamps overprinted "B" were used until July 1, 1885.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 125,340,261. A republic in the Bengal region of south Asia. In the partition of British India in 1947, Moslem Bangladesh comprised East Pakistan. Years of resentment with the domination of the country by West Pakistan finally erupted in a bitter civil war in March 1971. Indian intervention in December 1971, after the deaths of an estimated 1 million Bengalis, resulted in a quick Pakistani defeat, and Bangladesh became an independent republic. Since independence, Bangladesh has suffered continuing economic problems and political instability. In foreign affairs, it is closely linked to India. Before the issue of Bangladesh's first definitive set (and for some time thereafter), existing stocks of Pakistani stamps were overprinted locally, creating thousands of varieties that are not listed in the major stamp catalogs.
Banja Luka (1941)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 22,177 (1943). A city in northern Bosnia. During World War II, two Yugoslavian stamps were overprinted by the local partisans for use in the area.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A Hungarian district briefly occupied by Serbia after World War I.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 257,731. An island in the West Indies, Barbados was a British colony from 1628-1966. On Nov. 30, 1966, Barbados became an independent state within the British Commonwealth.
Barbuda (1922, 1968-)
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 1,250. A small island in the Leeward group in the West Indies, Barbuda is a dependency of Antigua.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A former feudatory state in western India. Barwani stamps were replaced by those of India on July 1, 1948.
Base Atlantica (1943-44)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. During World War II, the Supreme Commander of Italian submarine forces authorized the overprinting of a number of Italian stamps for use by Italian military personnel stationed in Bordeaux, France.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. Capital of the canton of the same name, in northern Switzerland. Basel is situated on the Rhine and borders on both France and Germany. In 1845 the famous "Basel Dove" was issued. Now regarded as one of the most beautiful of the classic issues, the stamp was not popular among the townspeople and was soon withdrawn.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 750,000 (1964 estimate). A former British crown colony surrounded by South Africa. Under British control after 1871, Basutoland became the independent state of Lesotho on Oct. 4, 1966. Stamps of the Cape of Good Hope were used 1871-1910 and those of the Union of South Africa 1910-33, when the colony began to use its own issues.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 30,000 (1914). A Georgian port on the Black Sea, Batum was annexed by Russia from Turkey in 1878 and became a major Russian naval base. During World War I, Batum was occupied by the Germans and the Turks, and in December 1918 by British forces. The port was evacuated by the British in July 1920. During the British occupation, three series of lithographed stamps (two overprinted "British Occupation"), as well as a number of Russian stamps overprinted and surcharged, were in use. After the British evacuation, stamps of Georgia were used, these being replaced by Russian stamps in 1923. Georgian issues replaced those of the Soviet Union in 1990. Since 1994, a large number of pictorial sets and souvenir sheets, described as local stamps, have appeared on the market. They are bogus, issued for sale to collectors, and have seen no postal use in Batum.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 7,150,146 (1919). Former kingdom in southern Germany. Bavaria joined the German Empire in 1870, retaining its own monarchy. The country was briefly independent following World War I. Bavarian stamps were replaced by German issues in 1920.
Bechuanaland Protectorate (1888-1966)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 540,400 (1964). District in south-central Africa, directly north of the Republic of South Africa. A British protectorate was established over the region in 1885, ending with the area becoming independent as the Republic of Botswana in 1966.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 210,000 (1914). The capital of Lebanon. Prior to World War I, a number of European nations maintained their own postal systems in Beirut. The Russian post office used stamps of the Russian Levant overprinted "Beyrouth" after 1909. In January 1905, the French authorities overprinted a contemporary French Offices in Turkey stamp for provisional use in Beirut. In July 1906, a similar provisional was used by the British authorities in Beirut. Both are scarce.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A small town near Valencia, Venezuela. In 1854, the postmaster issued local stamps to frank mail to Valencia.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 10,439,916. A republic in eastern Europe. The area of Belarus was part of the Lithuanian-Polish state during the Middle Ages and was conquered by Russia in the 18th century. Belarus, then called White Russia, was divided between Poland and the Soviet Union after the Russian Revolution but was reunited after WWII as the Belyorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, within the Soviet Union. In 1991, Belarus became an independent state. During 1996-97, Belarus signed several accords with Russia, closely linking the two countries politically and economically.
Belgian Congo (1886-1960)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 12,660,000 (1956). A former Belgian colony in central Africa. In 1885, the Congo Free State was established under the personal rule of Leopold II. Abuses of the colonial administration, harsh even by contemporary standards, prompted the Belgian government to assume administration of the region, renamed the Belgian Congo. In 1960 the Belgian Congo became independent, as the Republic of the Congo.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 10,203,683. A constitutional monarchy in northwest Europe, bordering on the English Channel. Conquered by Julius Caesar in the first century B.C., Belgium was ruled by a succession of foreign nations for nearly 2,000 years. In 1830, Belgium became independent from the last of these foreign rulers, the Dutch. Because of its strategic position, Belgian independence and neutrality was guaranteed by the major European powers. In 1914, Germany occupied most of the country, although Belgium's spirited resistance throughout the war earned worldwide respect. Germany again occupied Belgium during World War II. After 1945, Belgium aligned itself with the West and is a member of both NATO and the Common Market. Its prosperity is built on its foreign trade.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 224,663. An independent republic in central America. Belize was formerly the British colony of British Honduras. The name "Belize" was adopted in 1973. Belize became independent on Sept. 20, 1981. Neighboring Guatemala has long claimed Belize, although tensions between the two countries has eased in recent years.
Benin (1892-99, 1976-)
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 5,902,178. The coastal area of Dahomey, on the Gulf of Guinea, Benin was occupied by the French in the 19th century. Separate stamps were issued from 1892. In 1895, the area was grouped with recently conquered inland territories to form the French colony of Dahomey. In November 1975, Dahomey changed its name to the People's Republic of Benin.
Stamp-issuing status: active. Bequia is the nearest neighbor of St. Vincent and the northernmost in a group of small subsidiary islands in the Lesser Antilles, north of Trinidad and South America. Following the proliferation of Grenadines of St. Vincent issues that began in the early 1970s, stamps began to be issued for Bequia in 1976.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A town in northern Germany, originally owned by Hamburg and the Free City of Lubeck (1420-1867). In 1867, it passed into the sole possession of Hamburg. Bergedorf began issuing stamps in 1861, these being replaced by those of the North German Confederation in 1868.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 1.8 million. The capital of Prussia and, after 1871, of Germany. Surrounded by the Soviet Zone of Occupation, Berlin was divided into U.S., British, French and Soviet sectors in 1945. In 1948, political tension brought the creation of the zones of West (Allied) Berlin and East (Soviet) Berlin. The two zones each issued separate series of stamps, the East Zone in 1945 (the "Berlin Bears") and the West Zone from 1945 until 1990. Stamps of West Berlin were discontinued in 1990, with the reunion of the two Germanys, and they became obsolete December 31, 1991.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 62,569. A group of islands in the west-central Atlantic Ocean. A British colony since 1609, Bermuda was granted internal self-government in 1968. In 1995, in a referendum on independence, voters chose by a wide margin to retain their colonial status.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A former feudatory state in central India. Bhopal issued separate stamps for ordinary use until 1908, when they were replaced by Indian stamps. Bhopal continued to issue its own official stamps until 1950, when these, too, were replaced by Indian issues.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A former feudatory state in western India, Bhor issues were replaced by those of India in 1902.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 1,865,191. Kingdom in the eastern Himalayas between India and Tibet. Bhutan was under Tibetan rule from the 16th century. In 1910 it became a British protectorate. In 1949 it became independent, although it continues to be guided in foreign relations by India, with whom it carries on 99 percent of its commerce. Since 1966, Bhutan has issued large numbers of attractive (and philatelically inspired) stamps. Among the novel forms these issues have taken are: gold, silver and steel foil, designs printed on silk, 3-D plastic stamps and souvenir sheets, miniature plastic records, plastic bas-relief and designs printed on rose-scented paper.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 14 million (1968 estimate). The eastern region of Nigeria, in which is concentrated the Ibo tribe. On May 30, 1967, the Ibos proclaimed the independent Republic of Biafra, and on Feb. 5, 1968, the first Biafran postage stamps were issued. On Jan. 9, 1970, after a bitter civil war, Biafra surrendered to armies of the central government. Since that time, stamps of Nigeria have been in use. During 1968-70, some 68 major varieties were issued, as well as several overprinted sets that appeared on the market after Biafra's defeat.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 76,500 (1914). A city and province in northeastern Poland. In 1916, the local German military commander issued stamps for use in the area.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A former feudatory state in central India. Bijawar issued stamps from 1935-39, after which they were replaced by Indian stamps.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 185,898 (1937). The major port of northern Spain, located on the Bay of Biscay. Spanish stamps were overprinted in July 1937 to celebrate the occupation of the city by Franco's Nationalist forces.
Bohemia and Moravia (1939-45)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A German puppet-state created from the western provinces of Czechoslovakia prior to World War II. Bohemia and Moravia were reincorporated into Czechoslovakia following the war.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population 7,669,868. A land-locked republic in South America, Bolivia was part of the Inca empire during the 13th-16th centuries. It was conquered by Spain in the 1530s and, as the Presidency of Charcas, was attached to the viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata. Notable primarily for its rich silver mines, which were exploited and depleted by the Spanish, Bolivia was an imperial backwater for three centuries. In 1825, the Spanish were expelled, and Bolivia, taking its name from the Great Liberator Simon Bolivar, became independent. Bolivia has been beset by numerous wars and revolutions. In the first 100 years of its independence, Bolivia lost territory to Chile, Brazil and Paraguay, three of its four neighbors. Its only coastal territory was lost to Chile in the War of the Pacific (1879-84). Chronic internal instability has given Bolivia one of the lowest standards of living in Latin America. Its government has been a bewildering succession of military dictatorships. In recent years, anti-American feeling has grown because of the government's efforts, under U.S. pressure, to limit the traffic in coca, the raw material for cocaine. Because of frequent shortages of regular postal issues, revenues, postage dues and bisects frequently are used provisionally by Bolivian post offices.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. One of South Africa's so-called Bantustans or Bantu homelands, a scattering of nominally semi-autonomous states for otherwise disenfranchised black South Africans, located on the sites of reserves set up under the policies of the white-run apartheid government prior to World War II. Bophuthatswana was in fact made up of seven small independent tracts of territory within the eastern half of South Africa, six of which were in the northern part of the nation near the border with Botswana. Although not accorded international recognition as a sovereign state, Bophuthatswana's stamps were generally accepted on international mail. Bophuthatswana ceased to exist April 27, 1994.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (1879-1918, 1992-)
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 2,607,734. Located in southwestern Yugoslavia, the provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina were long ruled by their various neighbors. After nearly five centuries of Ottoman Turkish rule, they were placed under Austrian protection in 1878, and a year later their first separate stamps appeared. In 1908, Austria-Hungary formally annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina, arousing the fears of Serbian nationalists, who sought to add the area to the Kingdom of Serbia. In 1914, Austrian Archduke Ferdinand, heir to the aging Austrian emperor, was assassinated at the capital, Sarajevo, by agents of the Serbian secret police, setting off the series of events that culminated in World War I. After World War I, Bosnia and Herzegovina became part of the newly established Kingdom of Yugoslavia. During World War II, ancient ethnic antagonisms were renewed and reinforced as Croats, Serbs and Muslim Bosnian forces fought one another. In 1991 the Bosnia and Herzegovina parliament declared the states sovereign and in early 1992 declared independence from Yugoslavia. This was bitterly opposed by ethnic Serbs, and a three-way civil war broke out, with the loosely allied Croat and Muslim factions, backed by Croatia and later NATO, fighting the Bosnian Serbs, supported by Yugoslavia, which was by now reduced to the core Serbian state. This civil war was marked by atrocities and by the Serbs' ruthless policy of ethnic cleansing, the expulsion or execution of non-Serb minorities in the areas they controlled. In 1995 a peace agreement divided the country between the Croat-Muslims and the Serbs and created a collective government. Since then, a shaky peace has been maintained by a large international peace-keeping force.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 1,500,765. A republic in central southern Africa, directly north of the Republic of South Africa. Formerly the British Bechuanaland Protectorate, the republic became independent as Botswana on Sept. 30, 1966. Many Botswanans are migrant workers in South Africa, with which Botswana is closely linked.
Brac (Brazza) (1944)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. An island in the Adriatic Sea, off the coast of Yugoslavia. In 1944, Yugoslavian stamps were overprinted by the German military authorities for use in the island.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 164,511,366. A large republic, occupying nearly half of South America. Brazil was discovered by Europeans in 1500, and Portugal soon began colonizing the coastal areas. During 1808-21, after Napoleon had occupied Portugal, Brazil was the seat of the Portuguese empire. In 1821 the Portuguese king returned to Lisbon, leaving his son, Dom Pedro, to act as regent in Brazil. In 1822 Dom Pedro declared the independence of the Empire of Brazil. Although Dom Pedro and his son, Dom Pedro II, were popular, the feeling grew that an American monarchy was an anachronism, and in 1889 a bloodless coup established the republic. Since 1930, Brazil has often been ruled by various military regimes. A civilian government was in power 1956-64, and civilian rule was re-established in 1985. Ambitious industrial and agricultural programs since 1930 have capitalized on the country's enormous natural resources, and Brazil has become the leading industrial nation of Latin America. Economic growth has been slowed in recent years by income maldistribution and inflation.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 122,402 (1871 estimate). A major German seaport in northwestern Germany, Bremen was a free city and a member of the German and, later, the North German Confederations, joining the German Empire in 1870. Bremen used its own stamps from 1855-68, after which issues of the North German Confederation came into use.
British Antarctic Territory (1963-)
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 300. A British territory in the south Atlantic Ocean, forming part of the Falkland Islands Dependencies.
British Bechuanaland (1886-98)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 84,210 (1904 estimate). Located in southern Africa, British Bechuanaland was a British crown colony until 1895, when it was annexed to Cape Colony. It is now part of the Republic of South Africa. Overprinted stamps of Cape Colony were in use from 1886 to 1898, when they were replaced by regular Cape Colony stamps. Since 1910, stamps of South Africa have been used, although most Cape Colony stamps remained valid until 1937.
British Central Africa (1891-1908)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 1.6 million (1907 estimate). A former British territory in central Africa. In 1907, British Central Africa adopted the name Nyasaland Protectorate, which subsequently became independent as the Republic of Malawi.
British Columbia and Vancouver Island (1860-71)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 650,000 (1869 estimate). A Canadian province on the northwest coast of North America, bordering on the Pacific Ocean. The two British colonies of Vancouver (established 1849) and British Columbia (established 1858) united in 1866 and joined the Canadian Confederation in 1871.
British East Africa (1890-1903)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. Territories originally under control of the British East Africa Co., after 1895 directly under British administration. In 1903 the area was reformed as the East Africa and Uganda protectorates. During 1895-1903, this area used overprinted stamps of Britain, India and Zanzibar, as well as its own issues. In 1903, East Africa and Uganda issues came into use.
British Guiana (1850-1966)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 630,000 (1966 estimate). A former colony on the northern coast of South America, British Guiana became an independent republic in 1966, assuming the name Guyana. Early issues of British Guiana include a number of major rarities, among them "The World's Most Valuable Stamp," the 1¢ black on magenta of 1856. This stamp is unique and has passed through the hands of some of the giants of philately.
British Honduras (1866-1973)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 135,000 (1973 estimate). Located in Central America on the Caribbean Sea, this area was contested by the British and Spanish until 1798, when British authority was secured. In 1862 it became a British colony under Jamaican administration and in 1884 became a separate colony. In 1973, British Honduras changed its name to Belize.
British Indian Ocean Territory (1968-76, 1990-)
Stamp-issuing status: active. A group of British-owned coral atolls in the Indian Ocean. Formerly dependencies of Mauritius and the Seychelles, the atolls and three islands were organized as a crown colony on Nov. 8, 1965. On June 29, 1976, Aldabra, Farquhar and DeRoches islands were returned to Seychelles. The terrritory today comprises the Chagos Archipelago (Diego Garcia is the largest of five atolls).
British Offices in China (1917-30)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. Britain long maintained post offices in various Chinese cities. Stamps of Hong Kong were used in these offices until Dec. 31, 1916, after which Hong Kong stamps overprinted "China" were used. On Nov. 30, 1922, all British post offices in China were closed, except in the leased territory of Wei-hai-wei, which used British Offices in China issues until Sept. 30, 1930.
British Offices in Morocco (1898-1957)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. British post offices in Morocco used overprinted contemporary stamps of Gibraltar (1898-1906) and Great Britain. Separate issues were used in the Spanish Zone, the French Zone and Tangier, as well as the general issues used throughout the country. Regular British stamps were also often used.
British Offices in the Turkish Empire (1885-1914, 1919-23)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. Until 1885, regular British stamps were used by British post offices in the Ottoman Empire. After that date, British stamps surcharged in Turkish currency or overprinted "LEVANT" were used. British post offices in the area were closed Oct. 1, 1914, reopened March 1919, and finally closed Sept. 27, 1923.
British Virgin Islands (1866-)
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 13,367 (1997 estimate). A group of islands in the West Indies, southeast of Puerto Rico. The western portion of the Virgin Islands was under Danish rule until 1917, and under the United States since. The 30 eastern islands, which make up the British Virgin Islands, were under Dutch control until 1666, when they passed to Britain. Until 1956, they were administered as part of the Leeward Islands colony. In 1956 the British Virgin Islands became a separate crown colony and in 1967 became an Associated State, with Britain retaining control of foreign affairs and defense.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 307,616. A sultanate on the northwest coast of Borneo, situated between the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak. The state of Brunei was a regional power in the 16th century but, after a long decline, came under British protection in 1888. Brunei secured full self-government in 1971 and became fully independent in 1984. Its oil and natural gas industry has made the country quite wealthy in recent years, and the Sultan of Brunei is one of the world's richest men.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A former duchy in northern Germany, joining the German Empire in 1870. Brunswick's issues were used from 1852-68, when they were replaced by those of the North German Confederation.
Buenos Aires (1858-64)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. Buenos Aires, long the chief port and commercial center of Argentina, was independent from the rest of the country at various times in the 19th century. Since 1862, however, it has formed a province of Argentina, whose stamps have been in use since 1864. A British post office in the city used regular British stamps (canceled "B-32") from 1860 to 1873.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 8,652,745. During the 10th and 12th centuries, the Bulgars ruled much of the Balkan peninsula but subsequently declined in power, falling under Turkish control in 1396. In 1878, Bulgaria became an autonomous principality under nominal Turkish rule. In fact, Bulgaria was independent — more closely aligned with Russia than with Turkey — and this independence was formalized in 1908. The Treaty of San Stefano (1878) established a "Greater Bulgaria," which included all Bulgars and encompassed territory that now forms parts of Macedonia, Greece, Romania and Turkey. The powers, fearing the expansion of Russian influence in the Balkans through such a large client-state, overturned that treaty at the Congress of Berlin later in the year. Bulgaria's foreign policy from 1878 through 1944 was based on the creation of this Greater Bulgaria. In 1885, Bulgaria absorbed Eastern Rumelia, and in the Balkan Wars (1912-13) further expanded its borders. Its defeat by the Allies in World War I cost Bulgaria its Aegean coastline, and its defeat in World War II brought the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of a communist regime. In 1990 the Bulgarian Parliament ended the monopoly of the Communist Party on political power in the country, and the communist leadership was replaced by democratic opponents. Bulgaria's economy is going through a wrenching transition, as the country works to overcome years of neglect, to modernize and integrate with the rest of Europe.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A former feudatory state in northwestern India, Bundi issued stamps from 1894 to 1902 and from 1915 to 1948. During 1902-15 and after 1950, stamps of India were used. From 1948-50, stamps of Rajasthan were in use.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A province in north-central Spain. Burgos was occupied by the Nationalists early in the Spanish Civil War, and a large number of overprinted Spanish postage and fiscal stamps were used in the province during this period.
Burkina Faso (1984-)
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 10,891,159. A poor, landlocked republic in the Savannah region of West Africa, formerly the French colony of Upper Volta, bounded by the states of Mali, Niger, Benin, Togo, Ghana and Ivory Coast. Following a 1983 coup d'etat, Upper Volta's name was changed to Burkina Faso on Aug. 4, 1984. The name is a transliteration of indigenous words meaning "country of incorruptible men." The first stamps bearing the new name were in an airmail set issued on May 23, 1984.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 36 million. A republic in southeast Asia. Burma was a part of British India until 1937, when it became a separate territory under Britain. Occupied by Japan 1942-45, Burma was reoccupied by Britain, which granted independence on Jan. 4, 1948. Following independence, Burma maintained a nationalistic policy of socialism, restricting the economic and political freedoms of its people, especially non-Burman minorities. In 1989 the name of the country was changed to Myanmar.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 6,052,014. A republic in Central Africa. As Urundi, it was part of German East Africa 1899-1914 and was then administered by Belgium, under a United Nations mandate, until it became an independent kingdom in 1962. In 1966, the monarchy was overthrown by a military coup. Traditionally, Burundi has been ruled by the Tutsi (Watusi) tribe, which comprises only 14 percent of the population. In 1972-73, the Bantu Hutus, who make up 85 percent of Burundi's population, revolted, sparking a genocidal civil war in which 150,000 Hutsi and 10,000 Tutsi were killed. Another 100,000 Hutsi fled to Tanzania and Zaire. Attempts to reconcile the two groups have failed, and a 1993-96 civil war resulted in the deaths of at least 150,000 Burundians.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. An Iranian port on the Persian Gulf. Bushire was occupied by British forces from Aug. 8, 1915, to Oct. 16, 1915. During the British occupation, Persian stamps were overprinted and used in Bushire.
Bussahir (Bashahr) (1895-1901)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. Bussahir was a former feudatory state in northern India. Bussahir stamps were replaced by those of India. With the closing of the state post office, large numbers of remainders and reprints were released to the philatelic market. These exist both unused and canceled "19 MA 1900."
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