Stamp Issuing Entities Of The World

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East Africa Forces (1943-50)

Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A total of nine British stamps were overprinted "E.A.F." or "Somalia" for use in Italian Somalia under the British occupation.

East Africa and Uganda Protectorates (1903-21)

Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 6.5 million. A former British administrative unit in eastern Africa, comprising Kenya and Uganda.

East China (1938-50)

Stamp-issuing status: inactive. The Communist East China Liberation Area included the provinces of Shantung, Kiangsu, Chekiang, Anhwei and Fukien. Fourteen postal districts within East China issued stamps during 1938-49.

Eastern Rumelia (1880-85)

Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A Bulgarian district in the southeast Balkan Peninsula. After Turkey's defeat by Russia in 1877-78, Eastern Rumelia became autonomous. In 1885, a coup overthrew the vestiges of Turkish control and South Bulgaria was established.

Eastern Silesia (1920)

Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A former Austrian territory in central Europe. After World War I, it was disputed between Czechoslovakia and Poland, being divided between the two countries in 1920.

Ecuador (1865-)

Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 11,690,535. Republic on the western coast of South America. Ecuador was the site of a number of early Indian cultures and was the center of the northern Inca empire at the time of its conquest by Spain (1533). In 1822, Ecuador became independent as part of Bolivar's Great Colombia. In 1830, it withdrew to form a separate nation. Despite substantial petroleum deposits (it is an OPEC member), Ecuador remains an underdeveloped nation. A series of military and civilian regimes have alternated control in recent years. Since 1979, a democratic civilian government has ruled the country. A long-standing border dispute between Ecuador and Peru remains unresolved. Armed hostilities occasionally erupt between the two countries, most recently in January 1995.

Egypt (1866-)

Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 64,791,891. A republic in northeast Africa. Egypt was one of the centers of the development of western civilization. The dominant power in the region for 3,500 years, Egypt passed through periods of strength and weakness until 330 B.C., after which it was ruled by foreign states and dynasties until modern times. After 1517, Egypt was under Turkish control. In 1882, Britain occupied Egypt, although a nominal Turkish suzerainty remained until 1914. Egypt was a British protectorate until 1922, after which time it was virtually independent. British troops remained until 1951, when Egypt became completely independent. The corruption and extravagance of the monarchy brought the overthrow of King Farouk in 1952 and the establishment of a republic in 1953. In 1954, Lt. Col. Gamel Abdel Nasser, one of the leaders in the 1952 coup, came to power and ruled until his death in 1970. Nasser pursued a pan-Arab policy and attempted to unite the Arab world under his leadership. The United Arab Republic joined Egypt and Syria 1958-61, but attempts to maintain the union or to include Iraq and Yemen during this period failed. Nasser's foreign policy, technically neutral, was in most instances aligned with that of the Soviet Union, and by the time of his death, thousands of Soviet advisors were in Egypt. Nasser was succeeded by Anwar Sadat, who expelled Soviet advisers in 1971 and who pursued an increasingly pro-Western policy after 1974. Egypt fought wars with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973. In each instance, Israel won. In 1979, Egypt and Israel signed a formal peace treaty, establishing formal diplomatic relations, setting a timetable for Israeli withdrawal from Egyptian territory occupied since 1967, and providing for the establishment of a Palestinian state. In October 1981, Sadat was assassinated. He was quickly succeeded by his vice president, Hosni Mubarak. Mubarek has resisted the rise of Islamic fundamentalism in Egypt during the 1990s.

Elobey, Annobon and Corisco (1903-09)

Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 3,000 (1910 estimate). A group of islands near the Guinea coast off west Africa. The islands were acquired by Spain in 1778. Stamps of Fernando Po were used from 1868 to 1903. In 1909, the islands were attached to Spanish Guinea, now the Republic of Equatorial Guinea.

Elwa (1941)

Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A city in Estonia. Some 58 Russian stamps were provisionally overprinted "Eesti Post" by the German military authorities for use in the city.

Epirus (1914-16)

Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A region in southeast Albania. Inhabitants set up a provisional government in February 1914, and were united with Greece in December 1914. In 1916, Franco-Italian forces occupied the area, giving it to Albania after World War I.

Equatorial Guinea (1968-)

Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 442,516. A republic in the Gulf of Guinea, in West Africa, comprising the former Spanish colonies of Fernando Po and Rio Muni. Equatorial Guinea became independent Oct. 12, 1968. In 1972, Masie Ngeuma Biyogo became president for life. He ruled by terror, reviving slavery, killing some 50,000 people and driving tens of thousands more into exile. The United States suspended relations with the Biyogo government in 1976. The Soviet Union, China and North Korea maintained close relations, and Cuba maintained a military advisory mission in the country. On Aug. 5, 1979, Masie was overthrown, and a junta assumed power. The coup halted the production of vast numbers of brightly colored stamps (perfs, imperfs, souvenir sheets, gold-foil sheets) that were issued by Equatorial Guinea in the 1970s.

Erseka (1914)

Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A city in southeastern Albania, occupied by Greece in 1914. During the Greek occupation, the local authorities issued a set of seven stamps for use in the area.

Eritrea (1892-1937, 1948-52, 1991-)

Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 3,589,687. A republic in northeast Africa, bordering on the Red Sea. Long under general Ethiopian domination, the area was occupied by Italy during 1870-85. In 1890, Italian possessions in the region were consolidated into the colony of Eritrea. In 1936, Eritrea was absorbed into Italian East Africa. It was occupied by the British in 1941, and overprinted British stamps were used. In 1950, Eritrea became an autonomous part of Ethiopia, and in 1962 was annexed as a province. Eritrea never accepted Ethiopian rule, and after a 31-year civil war, became an independent republic in 1993.

Estonia (1918-40, 1991- )

Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 1,444,721. A republic in northern Europe bordering on the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Finland. Estonia was for centuries a Swedish possession. Conquered by Russia in 1721, it was under Russian rule until 1917, when it became independent. In 1939, Soviet forces occupied the country, absorbing it in 1940. Occupied by Germany from 1941-44 and administered as part of Ostland, Estonia was re-occupied by the Soviet Union. after World War II. In 1990, Estonia declared itself an "occupied nation" and on August 20, 1991, declared its independence. Russia accepted Estonia's declaration in September, and the last Russian troops were withdrawn in 1994.

Ethiopia (Abyssinia) (1894-1938, 1942-)

Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 58,732,577. A republic in northeast Africa. Ethiopia was an ancient empire, isolated from the rest of the Christian world after the Muslim conquests of the 7th century. Although Ethiopia subsequently broke up into several petty states, it maintained its unique culture and its political independence for centuries, as surrounding nations were conquered, first by the Arabs, Turks and Egyptians, later by the various European imperial powers. During the 19th century, the country was again united. An Italian invasion was crushed in 1896, but many outlying areas were gradually lost to the British, French and Italians. In 1935-36, Ethiopia was defeated by Italy, and in 1936, with Eritrea and Italian Somaliland, it was organized into the colony of Italian East Africa. Italy's East African empire was short-lived, and in 1941, Ethiopia was liberated with the help of British forces, and independence was restored. In 1974, Emperor Haile Selassie I, who had reigned since 1922, was deposed, and a socialist military regime assumed power. The new government abolished the monarchy, curbed the powers of the ancient Coptic Church, launched radical land reforms and violently suppressed political opposition. In 1978 Soviet advisers and 20,000 Cuban troops helped Ethiopia defeat Somalia in a border war in the Ogaden. By the early 1980's, chronic civil war, the upheaval caused by the displacement of farmers in collectivization programs, and a disastrous drought created a devastating famine in the country. The death of as many as a million Ethiopians brought a massive international relief effort, beginning in 1984. In 1991, a coalition of rebel armies overthrew the socialist military regime and created a transitional government. In 1994, a new constitution was adopted, and in 1995 Ethiopia's first multiparty national elections were held.

Eupen and Malmedy (1920-25)

Stamp-issuing status: inactive. Two towns in western Germany annexed by Belgium after World War I. A total of 68 overprinted stamps of Belgium were used until 1925, when regular Belgian issues came into use.

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