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Hadhramaut, Kathiri State in (1967)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A region in southwestern Arabia, formerly part of the Aden Protectorate. A number of large, colorful pictorial sets and souvenir sheets were released to the collector market in the months preceding the territory's absorption by the People's Democratic Republic of Southern Yemen.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 6,611,407. A republic occupying the western third of the island of Hispaniola in the West Indies. The Spanish occupied the island after its discovery by Columbus in 1492, enslaving the Indian population, which was soon exterminated. In time, the Spanish partially abandoned the island, and the western portion became a base for pirates. This area gradually came under French control, which was recognized by Spain in 1697. Under the French, African slaves were imported to work the sugar plantations, which were the mainstay of the colony's economy. In 1804, the descendants of these slaves expelled their French masters. The Republic of Haiti split into two parts in 1811, but in 1820, it was reunited and enlarged by the conquest of the eastern portion of the island (lost in 1844). During the 19th century, anarchy and foreign indebtedness increased, finally bringing U.S. occupation in 1915. U.S. troops withdrew in 1934, and the last U.S. controls ended in 1941. From 1957 to 1986, Haiti was ruled by the Duvaliers, first by Dr. Francois Duvalier ("Papa Doc") and, after his death in 1971, by his son, Jean-Claude ("Baby Doc"). After a period of popular unrest, Jean-Claude Duvalier fled Haiti in 1986, and the country's politics since have been chaotic. U.S. troops interceded in 1994-96 to restore the popularly elected president, who had been overthrown by the Haitian military. A small contingent of U.N. peacekeeping troops remain in Haiti.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A seaport and former Free City in northern Germany. Hamburg's stamps (1859-67) were replaced by those of the North German Confederation on Jan. 1, 1868.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A former kingdom in northern Germany. United with Britain from 1714 to 1837 through a common monarch, Hanover supported Austria in the Austro-Prussian War (1866) and was annexed by Prussia. Hanover's stamps were first issued in 1850, being replaced by those of Prussia in 1866.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. As a semi-autonomous district of Syria under French mandate, this area issued stamps as Alexandretta. In 1938, it was renamed Hatay, and in 1939 it was absorbed by Turkey.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 150,000 (1900 estimate). An island group in the north-central Pacific, Hawaii became a united kingdom in the late 18th century. During the late 19th century, American immigrants became increasingly influential in Hawaiian economic and political affairs and sought union with the United States. After a period of constitutional unrest fomented by American interests, the native monarchy was overthrown in 1893. The provisional government, initially unsuccessful in joining the United States, proclaimed Hawaii a republic. In 1898, the area was annexed by the United States, and the Territory of Hawaii was established in 1900. In 1959, Hawaii became the 50th state of the United States. Hawaiian stamps continued in use after the islands' annexation, being finally replaced by regular U.S. stamps in 1900.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. Located on the western coast of the Arabian Peninsula, Hejaz includes the Moslem holy cities of Mecca and Medina. In 1916, the grand sherif of Mecca proclaimed the Hejaz independent of Turkish rule and joined the British against Turkey in World War I. After Turkey's defeat, the Hashemite family, which had long ruled the Hejaz, provided rulers for the new states of Iraq and Trans-Jordan. After World War I, the independence of the Kingdom of the Hejaz was confirmed, but in 1924, it was invaded by the Hashemite's traditional rivals, the Wahabbis of eastern Arabia, led by Ibn Saud. The Hejaz was quickly conquered and absorbed into the Wahabbi kingdom. In 1932, the united kingdoms were renamed Saudi Arabia.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A peninsula on the Gulf of Danzig in northern Europe. German forces on the peninsula were cut off by the advancing Russians and issued a provisional stamp for use on mail to be carried back to Germany proper. This "U-Boat" stamp was used briefly, although it never actually became necessary to use U-boats to carry this mail.
Helsingfors (Helsinki) (1866-91)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. The capital of Finland. Stamps were issued by the local postmaster and were valid throughout the district.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 12,307 (1900 estimate). A strategically located island in the North Sea, Heligoland was ceded to Great Britain by Denmark in 1807. Britain transferred the island to Germany in 1890, in exchange for some German claims in East Africa. Heligoland was the site of a major German naval base, destroyed by the British after World War II. Heligoland was returned to Germany in 1952. Stamps of Hamburg were used in Heligoland from 1859 to 1867, when separate issues came into use. These were among the most attractive of British colonial issues. The plates used in printing Heligoland's stamps passed into private hands after the island's transfer to Germany, and many reprintings were made. Since 1890, German stamps have been used.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A province in central China. Overprinted Chinese stamps were issued by the Japanese during World War II.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 5,751,384. Republic in Central America. Honduras was part of the Maya homeland, one of the centers of that pre-Columbian culture. Spanish explorers arrived in 1502, and within a few decades Honduras was conquered by Spain and ruled as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Until 1838, its history follows that of Guatemala. In 1838, it became independent. Honduras' chief export is bananas, and the country has been the stereotypical "banana republic" since the last century. In 1975, Gen. Oswaldo Lopez Arellano, president since 1963, was ousted by the army over charges of widespread bribery. Since that time, the Honduran government has pursued a number of ambitious social programs, and free elections were held in 1981. Honduras remains one of the poorest countries in Latin America. Honduras fought a brief war with its neighbor, El Salvador, in 1969, and continuing tensions prompted border clashes in 1970 and 1976. During the 1980s, Honduras cooperated with the United States in supporting the Contra rebels in Nicaragua, provoking Sandinista incursions in 1988.
Hong Kong (1862-)
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 6.4 million. A peninsula and island at the mouth of the Zhu Jiang River in southeast China. Hong Kong was a British dependency from 1842 to 1997. On July 1, 1997, it was transferred to China, which administers it as a Special Administrative Region. Under British rule, Hong Kong became one of the most active seaports in the Far East. The colony's economy boomed after World War II, as its light manufacturing and banking industry flourished. During the 1970s, Hong Kong came to enjoy one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. In 1984, Britain and China agreed upon Hong Kong's return to China and began a process of transition, with guarantees of the territory's political and economic freedoms. Since Hong Kong's return to China, political opposition has been curtailed and the number of voters reduced. A degree of autonomy remains, however, and Hong Kong continues to maintain its own currency and issues its own stamps.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A province in northern China, surrounding Peking and Tientsin. Regular Chinese stamps were overprinted by occupying Japanese forces during World War II.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 49,000 (estimate). A district of the Azores. From 1868 to 1892 and from 1905 to 1931, stamps of the Azores were used. Since 1931, regular Portuguese stamps have been in use.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 9,935,774. A republic in East Central Europe. This area of flat plains and grasslands, bisected by the Danube River, was a favorite route of eastern tribes invading southern and western Europe. From the 4th to the 9th centuries, succeeding immigrations of Germans, Huns, Avars and other peoples passed through the region. Toward the end of the 9th century, Hungary was settled by the Magyars, who established a kingdom that embraced what is now Hungary, Croatia, Slovakia, and large parts of Serbia, Bosnia and Romania. For nearly a century the Magyars raided throughout central Europe, but under Stephen I (977-1038), they were converted to Christianity. For the next 500 years, Hungary served as Europe's eastern bulwark against the Asian tribes. In the early 16th century, the Ottoman Turks destroyed Hungarian power. Most of the country was conquered by the Turks, and the remaining northern and western fringe came under the rule of Hapsburg Austria. During 1686-1718, the Austrians expelled the Turks from Hungary. Austria completely dominated Hungary until the mid-19th century. Magyar nationalism forced the creation of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in 1867, after which Hungary was an equal partner with Austria. Having achieved its own nationalist goals, Hungary denied similar nationalist ambitions among its subject peoples. The Dual Monarchy's defeat in World War I brought the disintegration of the empire and of the Kingdom of Hungary. During 1918-20, the country was overrun by Serbian, French and Romanian armies and was torn by civil war between royalist and Bolshevik factions. Hungary emerged in 1920 as a nationalist state, having lost 50 percent of its population and 75 percent of its territory to Yugoslavia, Romania and Czechoslovakia. In 1938, Hungary participated in the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia and, during World War II, joined the Axis, regaining much of its former territory. In 1944-45, it was defeated by the Soviet Union and reduced to its pre-1938 boundaries. On Feb. 1, 1946, a republic was established, but in 1947, the communists ousted the president and purged noncommunist elements from the government. Demonstrations in October 1956, turned into open revolt against the regime. In early November, some 200,000 Soviet troops crushed the uprising, and a hard-line regime was re-established. Some 40,000 Soviet troops remained in Hungary, and Hungarian forces participated in the 1968 Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia. Always one of the most liberal of the East Bloc nations, the Hungarian communist government allowed considerable economic freedom, at least by Soviet standards. As a result, Hungary was more economically developed and has enjoyed a smoother, more rapid conversion to a free market economy following the collapse of the Soviet Union. In 1989, the Communist Party was dissolved, and in 1991, the last Soviet troops left the country. Wary of a revived Russian threat in the future and desiring to integrate its economy with Western Europe, Hungary has sought firm ties with the rest of Europe. In 1999, it joined NATO.
Hvar (Lesina) (1944)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. An island in the Adriatic Sea, off the coast of Yugoslavia. In 1944, Yugoslavian stamps were overprinted for use on the island by the German military commander of the Dalmatian Province.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 16.3 million (1941 estimate). The largest of the princely states, Hyderabad (Deccan) was the most powerful of the native states in southern India. Hyderabad became independent from the Mogul Empire in the early 18th century and allied itself to Britain after c.1760. After Britain's withdrawal from the subcontinent in 1947, the Moslem rulers of the state resisted domination by Hindu India, but Indian authority was firmly established in September 1948. Hyderabad maintained separate stamp issues until April 1, 1950, since which time Indian stamps have been used.
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