Stamp Issuing Entities Of The World

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Jaffa (1909-14)

Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 50,000 (1914). Israeli port on the Mediterranean Sea. Prior to World War I, a number of European nations maintained their own postal systems in the city. After 1909, the Russian post used 10 stamps of the Russian Levant overprinted "Jaffa."

Jaipur (1904-49)

Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A former feudatory state in north-central India. Jaipur merged into the United State of Rajasthan in 1948. Jaipur's issues were replaced by those of Rajasthan in 1949, which were in turn replaced by those of India on April 1, 1950.

Jamaica (1860-)

Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 2,615,582. A self-governing dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations occupying the island of Jamaica in the West Indies, south of Cuba. Jamaica was discovered by Columbus in 1494 and was occupied by Spain until 1655, when it became a British possession. The original Arawak inhabitants soon died out under the Spanish, who began the importation of African slaves to work the sugar plantations. Jamaica became an independent republic on Aug. 6, 1962. Economic dissatisfaction brought a socialist regime to power 1972-80. Attempts to expand Jamaican ownership in bauxite mining operations and to expand welfare programs failed to improve the economy, and a more conservative government came to power. This has resulted in improved relations with the United States and in economic growth since the 1980s.

Jammu and Kashmir (1866-94)

Stamp-issuing status: inactive. These north Indian states were united in 1846. From 1866 to 1878, each state issued its own stamps. Common issues began in 1878. From 1894 to 1948, Indian issues were used. Since Indian independence, this predominantly Moslem area has been disputed between India and Pakistan, and stamps of these nations have been used in the territories under their control.

Janina (1902-11, 1913-14)

Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 30,000 (1914). A city in northwest Greece. Janina was part of the Turkish province of Albania until occupied by Greece in 1913. During 1902-11 and 1913, an Italian post office, utilizing overprinted Italian stamps, operated in the city.

Japan (1871-)

Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 125,716,637. A group of islands off the eastern coast of Asia. Japan pursued an isolationist policy until 1854, when a U.S. fleet forced it to admit limited foreign trade. In 1867, internal dissension caused the restoration of imperial power and centralization within the country. Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization and, by the early 20th century, was a world power. During 1871-1910, Japan expanded its territory through an aggressive imperialistic foreign policy, gaining Formosa, Korea, etc. Its victory over Russia in 1905 established it as a major military power and encouraged the growth of nationalism throughout Asia. During World War I, Japan sided with the Allies, acquiring former German Pacific holdings after the war. During 1918-25, Japan occupied portions of Russian Siberia and Sakhalin and, in the 1930s, began to aggressively expand at the expense of China, which was invaded in 1937. In 1940, Japan joined the Axis and invaded French Indochina and, in 1941, attacked British and U.S. territories in the Pacific. After initial successes, the tide turned against Japan in 1943, ending with its defeat in 1945. All territory, except the home islands, was taken from it by the Allies, who occupied Japan until 1952. After World War II, Japan has enjoyed an economic boom, making it one of the world's great industrial powers. Since 1947, Japan has integrated many Western ideas into its traditional culture, creating a dynamic society that, in many ways, is a successful blending of European and Asian values.

Japanese Offices in China (1900-22)

Stamp-issuing status: inactive. Unoverprinted Japanese stamps were used at a number of Japanese post offices in China from 1876 to 1900. From Jan. 1, 1900, through Dec. 31, 1922, 49 overprinted Japanese stamps were used.

Japanese Offices in Korea (1900-01)

Stamp-issuing status: inactive. For a short time, Japanese post offices in Korea used 15 overprinted Japanese stamps. These were withdrawn in April 1901.

Jasdan (1942-50)

Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A former feudatory state in western India. Indian stamps replaced Jasdan's single issue in 1950.

Jersey (1941-45, 1958-)

Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 75,000. An island in the English Channel united with the British Commonwealth. Local issues were used during the World War II German occupation, regional issues from 1958-69, and issues of the independent Jersey Postal Administration since Oct. 1, 1969.

Jerusalem (1909-14, 1948)

Stamp-issuing status: inactive. The capital of Palestine and a holy city of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Prior to World War I, a number of European nations maintained their own postal systems in Jerusalem. Separate issues were made for their posts in the city by Italy (1909-11) and Russia (1909-14). In 1948, the French consulate operated a postal service in Jerusalem, utilizing overprinted French Consular Service stamps. Jewish Republic-A region in eastern Siberia, established by Stalin in the 1930s as a "homeland" for Soviet Jews. Although only a small proportion of the territory's population was Jewish by the time the Soviet Union collapsed, stamp promoters recognized an opportunity when they saw one, and a number of overprinted stamps have appeared on the market. They are bogus.

Jhalawar (1887-90)

Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A former princely state in western India. Jhalawar's stamps were replaced by regular Indian issues on Nov. 1, 1900.

Jhind (1874-1950)

Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A former feudatory state in the northern Punjab of India. Jhind issued 32 stamps from 1874 to 1885, when a postal convention united its postal system to that of India. From July 1885 to April 1, 1950, 220 different overprinted Indian stamps were used. Regular Indian issues replaced these overprinted issues on April 1, 1950, although the overprinted stamps remained valid until Jan. 1, 1951.

Johore (1876-)

Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 1 million (1960 estimate). A former nonfederated British Malay state. Johore was under British protection from 1914 to 1957. The area joined the Federation of Malaya in 1957.

Jordan (1920-)

Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 4,324,638. A kingdom occupying the territory east of the Jordan River in western Asia. Under Turkish control from 1516 to 1918, the area was occupied from 1918 to 1946 by Great Britain. Abdullah, second son of King Hussein of Hejaz, became amir of the Trans-Jordan in 1921 and king when the area became independent in 1946. Jordan seized a large territory on the western bank of the Jordan River in 1948, but the area was occupied by Israel in 1967. By 1970, the growing power of Palestinian guerrillas in Jordan provoked a reaction by King Hussein and his Beduoin supporters. A bitter campaign ensued, and Palestinian strength in the country was broken by mid-1971. In 1990-91, King Hussein, long regarded as a moderate in the Arab world, was among the few in the region who did not oppose Iraq, following its invasion of Kuwait. In 1994, Jordan and Israel formally ended the state of war that had existed between them since 1948.

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