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Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 338,210 (1960 estimate). The largest Malay state, under British protection after 1888. Pahang was occupied by Japan from 1942 to 1945 and joined the Federation of Malaya in 1948. It is now a part of Malaysia.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A port in the province of Kwangtung in southern China. France maintained a post office in Pakhoi from 1902 to 1922, using overprinted stamps of French Indochina after 1903.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 132,185,299 (1997 estimate). Republic in south-central Asia. Pakistan was formed in 1947 from the predominantly Moslem areas of India. In April 1971, Eastern Pakistan seceded and, in December 1971, after the Indo-Pakistani War, became independent as the Republic of Bangladesh. Tension with India has remained at a high level since the two countries became independent, and a number of wars have resolved little. Both nations maintain relatively large military forces and effective, if rudimentary, nuclear arsenals.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 17,240 (1997 estimate). A republic comprising about 100 islands and islets at the western end of the Caroline Islands chain in the western Pacific Ocean. Palau is about 800 miles east southeast of the Philippine Islands. These islands were part of the Spanish Caroline Islands until 1899, when they were sold to Germany, which issued stamps for use there. The Caroline Islands were seized by the Japanese during World War I and administered by them under a 1919 mandate of the League of Nations. Invaded and conquered by United States forces in 1944, the islands were made part of the United Nations-mandated U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific in 1947. Palau became a republic in 1981 and began to issue its own stamps in 1983, although its mail continues to be handled by the U.S. Postal Service.
Palestine — British Military Administration (1918-20)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. In 1918, British and Arab forces occupied the Turkish Asian provinces bordering on the eastern Mediterranean. Britain's military administration issued stamps inscribed "E.E.F." (Egyptian Expeditionary Forces) that were used in Palestine, Trans-Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and in parts of Cilicia and northeast Egypt.
Palestine — British Administration (1920-47)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. In 1920, British civil administration was established in Palestine, the southernmost of the formerly Turkish provinces bordering on the Mediterranean. In 1923, the League of Nations formally placed the territory under a British mandate. The Zionist Movement brought increasing Jewish immigration into Palestine, causing an increasingly bitter rivalry between Jewish Palestinians seeking to recreate the ancient Jewish homeland and Arab Palestinians, who wished to create an independent Arab Palestinian state. In 1948, Britain partitioned the country between the two groups and withdrew its forces, precipitating the first Arab-Israeli War.
Palestine — Palestinian Authority (1994-)
Stamp-issuing status: active. By the terms of the 1994 Oslo Accord, Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization agreed to a graduated process of Palestinian autonomy and Israeli withdrawal from the West Bank. Although the process itself has not gone smoothly, as Israel continues to build Jewish settlements on the West Bank while the PLO maintains the destruction of Israel as its ultimate goal, some areas have been transferred to the Arab Palestinian Authority.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 2,693,417 (1997 estimate). A republic occupying the Isthmus of Panama, between North and South America. The area was a department of the Republic of Colombia until 1903 when U.S. intervention enabled the Panamanians to secure their independence. The new Panamanian government immediately conceded to the United States a 10-mile wide strip of land bisecting the isthmus. Construction of the Panama Canal began the following year and was completed in 1914. While the Panamanian economy benefited greatly from the Canal, the presence of a foreign sovereignty on their soil was a constant irritant to Panamanians' national pride. During 1964-77, U.S.-Panamanian relations deteriorated over the status of the Canal, which became an emotionally charged issue throughout Latin America. In 1978 a revised Canal treaty was ratified by the U.S. Senate. Implemented in 1979, this treaty provides for the gradual transfer of authority, with full Panamanian ownership by December 31, 1999. Panama assumed political sovereignty in the Canal Zone on Oct. 1, 1979. During the 1980s, Panama was under the control of Gen. Manual Noriega. Noriega's repression of political opposition and involvement in drug trafficking led to increasing conflict with the United States during 1986-1989. U.S. forces invaded Panama, deposed Noriega, who was returned to the United States for trial, and installed a government led by the Noriega opposition.
Papua New Guinea (1952-)
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 4,496,221 (1997 estimate). Independent state occupying the eastern half of the island of New Guinea, in the western Pacific Ocean, north of Australia. The southern portion of the country, Papua, was united administratively with the northern U.N. mandate of New Guinea in 1949, as Papua and New Guinea. In 1972, the name of the territory became simply Papua New Guinea. In 1974, it achieved self-government under Australian authority and, in 1975, became independent. The country retains close ties with Australia. Papua New Guinea has numerous tribal divisions, with 750 local languages, so the maintenance of the country's territorial integrity is a major priority. A secession movement in Bougainville brought violent outbreaks, beginning in 1973. The Bougainville rebels declared independence in 1990, although government forces reoccupied the island in 1991, and the rebels have been on the defensive since 1994. Indonesian incursions from West Irian occurred in 1978.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 5,651,634 (1997 estimate). A land-locked republic in central South America, surrounded by Argentina, Brazil and Bolivia. Long a border region, disputed between Spain and Portugal, Paraguay was ruled by Spain and attached at various times to the viceroyalties of Peru and La Plata (Buenos Aires), Paraguay declared its independence from Spain in 1811 and from La Plata in 1813. In 1865, its territorial ambitions precipitated the War of the Triple Alliance (1865-70), in which Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay united to defeat Paraguay, annexing large areas of the country. In 1935, Paraguay defeated Bolivia in the Chaco War, securing most of the disputed Gran Chaco region, although at a cost in manpower that took generations to replace. Paraguay was ruled by Gen. Alfredo Stroessner from 1954 to 1989. His regime was one of the most repressive in Latin America. In 1989 he was overthrown by the army, which oversaw a transition to civilian government by 1993, when the country's first democratic presidential election was held. Since 1961, Paraguay has issued a huge number of attractive, philatelically inspired stamps and souvenir sheets.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive: Population: 500,000 (1860 estimate). Former duchy in northern Italy. Parma was annexed to Sardinia in 1860.
Parnu (Pernau) (1941)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A city in Estonia. Overprinted Russian stamps were issued by the German military commander.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 1,936,259 (1941 estimate). A former convention state of British India. Patiala's issues were used concurrently with those of India after April 1, 1950. They were replaced by those of India on Jan. 1, 1951.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. One of the Dodecanese Islands in the eastern Aegean Sea. The area was obtained from Turkey by Italy in 1912, at which time Italian stamps overprinted "Patmos" were issued. In 1929, Patmos' issues were superseded by the general Aegean Islands issues, although two sets overprinted "Patmo" were released in 1930 and 1932.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. The capital of China. Italian post offices in the city used 38 Italian stamps overprinted "Pechino."
Penang (Pulau Pinang) (1948-)
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 616,254 (1960 estimate). A former British possession on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula. Penang has been a member of the Federation of Malaya since 1948. Recent stamps used there are inscribed "Pulau Pinang."
Penrhyn Island (1902-32, 1973-)
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 2,050. A small island in the South Pacific Ocean, administered by New Zealand as part of the Cook Islands. Penrhyn was annexed by Britain in 1888 and placed under New Zealand in 1901. Cook Islands stamps were used in Penrhyn prior to 1902 and from 1932 to 1973. Since 1973, stamps inscribed "Penrhyn Northern Cook Islands" have been in use on the island and on six neighboring islands.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 1.33 million (1960 estimate). A sultanate on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula. Under British influence after 1795, Perak was incorporated into the Federated Malay States in 1895. Perak joined the Federation of Malaya in 1948. Since 1963 it has been one of the members of the independent Federation of Malaysia.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 97,645 (1960 estimate). Former Siamese tributary state in the south Malay Peninsula. Perlis was under British control after 1909, joining the Federation of Malaya in 1948. With the rest of the Malay states, it is now part of the Federation of Malaysia.
Petit St. Vincent (1976)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. One of the Grenadines of St. Vincent, a group of small islands in the Lesser Antilles, north of Trinidad and South America.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 24,949,512 (1997 estimate). A republic on the west coast of South America. Peru was the center of numerous early Indian cultures. During the 14th-15th centuries, the Inca tribe, expanding from its heartland in southeastern Peru, created an empire stretching from northern Ecuador to central Chile, including Bolivia and northwestern Argentina, as well as Peru. In 1532-33, Spanish adventurers overthrew the Incas, and for three centuries, Peru was the center of Spanish power in South America. Peru became independent from Spain in 1824, although independence did little to improve the condition of the lower classes of the country. A few wealthy families, along with foreign mining interests, controlled the economic life of Peru until recent years, often ruling through military juntas. During 1968-80, Peru was ruled by a socialistic military regime, which pursued an arduous program of nationalization and social reform. This program slowed after 1976, when popular dissatisfaction with the regime's economic policies brought a new military government to power. In 1980, democratic civilian rule replaced the military dictatorship. During the 1990's, presidential powers were expanded in response to widespread drug trafficking and corruption and to better combat the long-running rebellion of the Maoist Shining Path guerrilla movement.
Peru-Provisional Issues (1881-85)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. During the Chilean-Peruvian War of 1879-84, Lima and Callao, the two chief cities of Peru, were occupied by Chile. Since stamps were supplied from these cities, outlying areas soon ran out of regular stamps and were forced to issue provisional stamps. The post offices that issued such provisionals were Ancachs, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Chachapoyas, Chala, Chiclayo, Cuzco, Huacho, Moquegua, Paita, Pasco, Pisco, Piura, Puno and Yca.
Petah Tiqva (1908-09)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A city in Israel, near Tel-Aviv. Jewish National Fund labels were used for a time by the Austrian post office in the city.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A city in the Caucasus, southern Russia. Russian stamps surcharged with new values were issued by the local authorities.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 76,103,564 (1997 estimate). A large group of islands in the Malay Archipelago, north of Borneo. Occupied by Spain from the 16th century, the Philippines were ceded to the United States in 1899. Nationalist resistance was suppressed by the United States by mid-1902, but local self-government was steadily expanded. In 1935 the Philippine Commonwealth was established, and a plan leading to full independence in 1946 was adopted. During World War II, the Philippines were occupied by Japan. Following the defeat of the Japanese in September 1945, prewar plans for independence were resumed, and on July 4, 1946, the Republic of the Philippines was declared. Communist Huk guerrillas fought the central government after 1946 but were defeated by 1954. Moro resistance in the southern islands, which had continued from the days of Spanish rule, culminated in peace talks in 1996/97, aimed at permitting greater autonomy in Moro areas. Increasing leftist terrorism and student riots during 1970-71 led to a declaration of martial law by President Ferdinand Marcos. Marcos continued to rule by decree until he was ousted from the Philippines following a hotly contested election by Corazon Aquino in 1986. The Aquino regime survived several coup attempts by right-wing elements, and was succeeded by a democratically elected slate in 1992. Tension between the Philippines and the United States over U.S. naval bases in the country were defused in 1991/92, when the United States abandoned Clark Air Force Base, damaged by the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, and turned over the Subic Bay naval base.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. One of the Dodecanese Islands in the eastern Aegean Sea. Piscopi was obtained from Turkey by Italy in 1912, at which time Italian stamps overprinted "Piscopi" were issued. Piscopi's issues were superseded by those of the Aegean Islands in 1929, although two sets overprinted for the island were issued in 1930 and 1932.
Pitcairn Islands (1940-)
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 73 (1995 estimate). A group of small islands in the South Pacific Ocean. Originally settled in 1790 by mutineers from HMS Bounty, Pitcairn, the only inhabited island in the group, has been a British colony since the 19th century.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A city on the Adriatic coast of Yugoslavia. Stamps of Italy and the Italian Social Republic were surcharged for use under the authority of the Yugoslavia military forces.
Poland (1860-65, 1918-)
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 38,700,291 (1997 estimate). A republic in eastern Europe, between Germany and Russia. During the Middle Ages, Poland was the dominant Christian power in eastern Europe, but after about 1700, its power declined. Between 1772 and 1795, it was absorbed by Russia, Prussia and Austria and did not reappear as an independent nation until 1918. In the aftermath of World War I, Poland fought both Germany and Russia, acquiring large territories from both, as well as from Austria and Lithuania. During this period, many local stamps were used. In 1939, Poland was invaded by Germany and the Soviet Union, igniting World War II. The two powers divided Poland between them, Germany occupying all of the country after its invasion of Russia in 1941. During the war, Poland suffered terribly, and some six million Poles, half of them Jews, were killed. A Polish Government in Exile was established in London and was recognized by the Western Allies, but after Soviet forces occupied Poland during 1944-45, a more malleable government was established by the Russians. After World War II, the Soviet Union's 1939 acquisitions were recognized by the new Polish regime. In return for this loss of about 70,000 square miles in the east, Poland was awarded about 40,000 square miles of German territory in the west. In 1947, the communist regime was finally established and began a thorough program of socialization. Declining farm production and harsh working conditions sparked riots in 1956, which brought a moderation of government policy. In 1970, a new series of riots brought a change of government and increased emphasis on the production of consumer goods. In the summer of 1980, the Polish labor movement, Solidarity, led by Lech Walesa, launched a series of strikes that brought major concessions from the government. Increasing democratization brought intense Soviet pressure to bear on the Polish leadership, resulting in a government crackdown in late 1981. During the 1980s, Solidarity continued to agitate for reform. Nationwide strikes in 1988 forced the government to allow open elections, and in 1989 Solidarity candidates were swept into office. In 1990 Walesa was elected president, and in 1991 Poland's first free elections since World War II were held. Poland is one of the most successful of the former communist republics to privatize its economy and reestablish democratic government. It became a member of NATO in 1999.
Polish Corps in Russia (1918)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. In 1917, Polish prisoners of war, captured by the Germans, were formed into the Polish Corps to fight, under German command, against the Russians. A number of Russian stamps were overprinted for use by this unit.
Polish Government in Exile (1941-45)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. After the German-Soviet invasion of 1939, the Polish Government in Exile operated from London. During 1941-45, stamps were issued for use on letters posted from Free Polish merchant vessels and warships fighting against the Axis powers.
Polish Military Post in Russia (1917-18)
After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Polish forces fighting with the Russian army regrouped into a separate army corps. Contemporary Russian stamps were overprinted for their use.
Polish Offices Abroad (1919-21, 1925-39)
Poland maintained post offices in Constantinople from 1919-21 and in Danzig from 1925-39, overprinting 36 and 19 Polish stamps, respectively.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A town in Puerto Rico. U.S. forces issued a provisional stamp for use after the occupation of the city from Spain in August 1898.
Ponewesch (Panevezys) (1941)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A city in central Lithuania. A total of nine overprinted Russian stamps were issued by the German military commander.
Ponta Delgada (1892-31)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 125,000 (1905 estimate). An administrative district of the Azores. Stamps of Ponta Delgada were replaced by issues of the Azores in 1905, which in turn were replaced by regular Portuguese issues in 1931.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A province of northwestern Spain, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and Portugal. The Nationalist authorities overprinted contemporary Spanish stamps for use in the province in 1937.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 287,000 (estimated). A former tributary state of Jammu and Kashmir in northern India. Poonch's issues were replaced by those of India in 1894.
Port Arthur and Dairen (1946-51)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. Port and peninsula in southern Manchuria, bordering on the Strait of Pohai. Under Japanese rule from 1895-1945, the area was occupied by the Soviets after World War II and turned over to the Chinese communists in 1946. In 1951, the regional issues were overprinted by the general issues of the People's Republic of China in 1951.
Port Lagos (1893-98)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A port in northern Greece. Unoverprinted French stamps were used by the French post office in the city after 1870. During 1893-98, stamps of France, overprinted "Port-Lagos" and new values in Turkish currency, were used.
Port Said (1899-1931)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A major Egyptian port on the Mediterranean Sea. The French post office in the city operated from 1867 through March 31, 1931.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 9,867,654 (1997 estimate). A republic on the western coast of the Iberian Peninsula in southwest Europe. Independence was established in 1095, and during the next two centuries it was expanded to its present borders. During the 15th and 16th centuries, Portuguese navigators and merchants led European overseas expansion. Portugal built an overseas empire that included Brazil and colonies in Africa, Arabia, India and the Far East. Portuguese power declined rapidly after 1580, although Portugal maintained much of its colonial empire until 1975. Portugal was a kingdom from 1139 until 1910 when the republic was established. From 1932 to 1968, Portugal was ruled by Premier Antonio de Oliveira Salazar, an authoritarian dictator. After 1968, Salazar's policies were continued by his successors. The regime became increasingly unpopular, largely because of the country's debilitating wars against nationalist movements in the African colonies. In 1974, a military coup overthrew the government, and the new liberal regime quickly granted independence to Angola, the Cape Verde Islands, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique and Sao Tome-Principe. Autonomy was granted to Macau, Madeira and the Azores. The collapse of authority in Portuguese Timor brought that territory's occupation by Indonesia in 1976. The government moved increasingly to the left during 1975, and the communists, despite setbacks at the polls, increased their influence. In November, a counter-coup halted this trend, and free elections in 1976 gave Portugal a socialist government. Portugal's swift change from a rigidly controlled rightist dictatorship, through a flirtation with communism, to a socialist democracy brought enormous economic strains. In recent years, though, there has been considerable progress.
Portuguese Africa (1898, 1919, 1945)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. Three general issues were released by Portugal for use in its African colonies (Angola, Cape Verde, Portuguese Guinea, St. Thomas and Prince Islands, and Mozambique). These were used concurrently with the issues of the separate colonies.
Portuguese Congo (Cabinda) (1893-1920)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A district of Angola lying north of the Congo River, separated from Angola by Zaire. It was administered as the Portuguese Congo until its incorporation with the colony of Angola.
Portuguese Guinea (1881-1974)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 565,000 (1973 estimate). Former Portuguese colony in West Africa. The area was explored by the Portuguese in the 15th century but was not colonized until the 19th century. In the 1960s, an independence movement in the interior of the colony began a guerrilla war that culminated in the country's independence in 1974.
Portuguese India (1871-1962)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 650,000. Portuguese India comprised a number of Portuguese holdings on the west coast of India, including the districts of Goa, Damao and Diu. Occupied by Portugal since the 16th century, these territories were seized by India in 1961 and absorbed into the Indian republic. Existing stocks of Portuguese Indian stamps were sold for about 10 days following the invasion and were valid until Jan. 7, 1962. Two sets for the colony were issued in early 1962 by Portugal, which did not recognize India's action. The stamps were never used in the territories.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. Capital city of Czechoslovakia. During November 1918, the Czech Revolutionary Committee operated a local postal service in Prague, staffed by Boy Scouts.
Priamur and Maritime Provinces (1921-22)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A region in southeastern Siberia, west of Manchuria. In May 1921, a monarchist, anti-Bolshevik regime was established, with Japanese support. This government was never secure, and with the Japanese withdrawal from Siberia in October 1922, it collapsed.
Prince Edward Island (1861-73)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 90,000 (1872 estimate). An island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, in northeastern North America. Prince Edward Island was a British colony until 1873 when it joined the Canadian Confederation.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 40.17 million (1910 estimate). Former kingdom in northern Germany. By the early 18th century, Prussia was a major European power, and by 1870, it occupied most of northern Germany and ruled two-thirds of the German population. Prussia dominated the German Empire established in 1870. Stamps of Prussia were issued from 1850-67 and were replaced on Jan. 1, 1868, by issues of the North German Postal District.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A city in south-central Poland. Several series of stamps were issued during World War I by the municipal authorities under the authority of the Austrian military commander.
Prune Island (1976)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. One of the Grenadines of St. Vincent, a group of small islands in the lesser Antilles, north of Trinidad and South America.
Pskow (Pleskau) (1941-42)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A city in northwestern Russia. During World War II, 17 stamps were issued for the district by the German military commander.
Puerto Rico (1855-1900)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 955,000 (1900 estimate). A large island east of Hispaniola in the West Indies, Puerto Rico was discovered by Columbus on his second voyage in 1493. Puerto Rico remained a Spanish colony until 1898, when it was occupied by the United States during the Spanish-American War. The island was subsequently ceded to the United States and, since 1952, has been a commonwealth in association with the United States. Puerto Rican issues of 1855-73 were issued in Cuba as well as Puerto Rico. Separate issues appeared after 1873. In 1898, two provisional stamps were issued by the U.S. military forces in Puerto Rico, followed by 10 overprinted U.S. stamps during 1899-1900. Since 1900, regular U.S. issues have been in use.
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