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Tahiti (1882-93, 1903, 1915)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. An island in the South Pacific. A former French colony, Tahiti merged into French Polynesia in 1893. Except for the issues of 1903 and 1915, stamps of French Polynesia have been in use since 1893.
Taiwan (Formosa) (1886-95, 1945-)
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 21,655,515. Island off the coast of China, in the west Pacific Ocean. Originally populated by an aboriginal people of Malaysian origin, substantial Chinese settlement began in the 1600s. Taiwan was conquered by China in 1683 and remained a Chinese province until 1895, when it was ceded to Japan. Local Chinese inhabitants objected and proclaimed an independent republic, which was soon suppressed by Japanese forces. Between August and October 1895, the Formosan regime issued eight locally printed stamps. In 1945, it was reoccupied by China and, in December 1949, General Chiang Kai-shek withdrew the Nationalist Army to Taiwan, after the communists had conquered the mainland of China. The Nationalists maintained the policy that their regime was the only legitimate Chinese government and planned, with increasing futility as the years went by, their reconquest of the mainland. In the meantime, they ruled Taiwan as the Republic of China, with the 15% mainland Chinese minority ruling the country. United States support averted a Chinese invasion from the mainland in 1953 and kept China's United Nations seat in the hands of Taiwan until 1971. During the 1960s rapid manufacturing development increasingly created a prosperous and, by the 1970s a predominantly industrial, economy. Political controls began to loosen after Chiang's death in 1975. In recent years, Taiwan has become a democratic nation, and control of the country has gradually shifted from the old Nationalist mainland Chinese families to the native Taiwanese. While a significant minority favor long-term independence, the majority of Taiwanese prefer an eventual reunion with the mainland, at a time when economic and political liberalization there permits them to maintain their identity and way of life.
Stamp-issuing status: active. Population: 6,013,855. Republic in central Asia, bordering on Afghanistan, China, Kirghizia and Uzbekistan. The Tajiks were long ruled by the Persians or the Afghans and came under Russian control in the late 19th century. In 1990 Tajikistan declared its sovereignty and in 1991 joined in the Commonwealth of Independent States. A parliamentary republic was declared in 1992. Since 1992 the country has been torn by civil war between the government, dominated by ex-communists and an anti-government coalition consisting of pro-Western intellectuals and Muslims.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A city in west-central Finland. Several issues were made by the local postmaster for use within his district.
Tanganyika (1921-35, 1961-64)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 9.5 million (1962 estimate). The major portion of the former German East Africa colony, placed under British administration after World War I. A part of Kenya, Uganda and Tanganyika after 1935, it became independent on Dec. 9, 1961. In 1964, it merged with Zanzibar to become the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, renamed Tanzania in 1965.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. In 1923, Great Britain, France and Spain declared Tangier, in northern Morocco, an international zone. Stamps of French Morocco and Spanish Morocco, as well as special British, French and Spanish issues for Tangier, were used. In 1957, the city was annexed by Morocco.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 29,460,753 (1997 estimate). A republic in southeastern Africa, bordering on the Indian Ocean. Tanzania was formed with the union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar in 1964 as the United Republic of Tanganyika. In October 1965, the name was changed to the United Republic of Tanzania. Tanzania has maintained socialist policies at home and neutrality in its foreign affairs. Its relations with its two northern neighbors, Kenya and Uganda, have been strained. During 1978-79, clashes occurred with Uganda, culminating in a successful Tanzanian invasion, which overthrew Ugandan dictator Idi Amin. The infusion of large numbers of refugees from the civil war in Rwanda have taxed Tanzanian resources since 1994. In 1995 Tanzania had its first multiparty elections.
Tannu Tuva (1926-34)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 306,300 (1994). An area in northern Asia between Mongolia and Siberia. Long disputed between Russia and China, the district was established in 1926 as an independent republic under Soviet protection. During the 1930's, Tannu Tuva issued several sets of large pictorials, primarily for the collector market. In 1944, it was absorbed into the Soviet Union and was designated an Autonomous Republic in 1961. Since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Tuva, renamed Tyva in 1993, has become autonomous in fact, as well as name. In 1993 a new constitution was adopted, establishing a governing parliament, maintaining the primacy of Tyvan laws enacted by the parliament, and asserting the nation's right to conduct an independent foreign policy. A number of stamps have appeared on the market in recent years, purportedly issued by Tyva, but these are bogus. Tyva hasn't yet begun issuing its own stamps again.
Tasmania (Van Dieman's Land) (1853-1913)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 172,000 (1901 estimate). Island off the southeastern coast of Australia. A dependency of the British colony of New South Wales from 1803 to 1825, the island became the colony of Van Dieman's Land in 1825. In 1856, the name of the colony was changed to Tasmania, and in 1901, it joined with the mainland colonies to form the Commonwealth of Australia.
Telsiai (Telschen) (1941)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A city in northwestern Lithuania. A total of 25 different overprinted Russian stamps were issued by the German military commander of the area during July and August 1941.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A district of the Banat, occupied by Serbia after World War I. After the Serbian evacuation, Romanian forces occupied the area, and Temesvar was subsequently annexed by Romania. Both Serbian and Romanian forces overprinted a total of 16 Hungarian stamps for use in the area.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A province in northeastern Spain. Overprinted Spanish stamps were issued in 1937 by the local Nationalist authorities.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 367,000 (estimate). Formerly a district of Zambezia in the colony of Portuguese East Africa, Tete now is part of western Mozambique.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A city in northern Morocco, formerly part of Spanish Morocco. The city name was handstamped on 15 Spanish and Spanish Offices in Morocco stamps for use there in 1908.
Thailand (Siam) (1883-)
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 59,450,818 (1997 estimate). A kingdom in southeast Asia. For centuries, Thailand was the dominant power in the Malaya-Indochina region. European encroachments in the 19th century reduced this influence dramatically, although Thailand, alone among the native states of the region, was able to maintain its independence. An ally of Japan during World War II, Thailand was able to reoccupy some of its lost territories. These were given up when, in 1945, the Thai government repudiated its declaration of war against Great Britain and the United States. After World War II, Thailand aligned itself with the West. During the Vietnamese War, Thai troops were active in South Vietnam (until 1972) and in Laos (until 1974). With the U.S. withdrawal from Indochina, Thailand established diplomatic relations with China and attempted to reestablish peaceful relations with its communist neighbors. Border incursions by warring factions in Laos and Cambodia continued in the 1980s, as did the movement of hundreds of thousands of Laotian and Cambodian refugees. In recent decades, Thailand has been one of the leaders in the economic development of East Asia. Its political stability, however, has been upset by coups and the political influence of the Thai military. In 1997, after years of mismanagement and corruption, the Thai economy collapsed, creating a financial crisis throughout the Far East.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. During the Turko-Greek War of 1898, a set of five octagonal stamps was issued for use by the Turkish forces in Thessaly.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A district in the southeastern Balkans, bordering on the Aegean and Black seas. Under Turkish rule from the 14th century, the western portion of Thrace was occupied by Bulgaria in 1912. In 1913, an autonomous Moslem regime briefly ousted the Bulgarians. During its ephemeral existence, this regime issued lithographed stamps, as well as overprints on Turkish, Greek and Bulgarian issues. In 1913 western Thrace was incorporated into Bulgaria, using regular Bulgarian issues. In October 1918, this area was taken from Bulgaria by the Allies, who overprinted Bulgarian stamps for use in the zone. In May 1920, western Thrace was mandated to Greece, and in August, Greece annexed the territory. Eastern Thrace remained in Turkish hands until 1918, when it, too, was occupied by the Allies. Like the western portion of the province, it was turned over to Greece in 1920. After the Greek defeat in the Graeco-Turkish War (1922), it was returned to Turkey.
Thurn and Taxis (1852-67)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A princely house that maintained a postal monopoly in central Europe from the 16th century until 1806. After 1815, it operated postal services in parts of western Germany. In 1867, its rights were purchased by Prussia.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 2,290,000 (1993 estimate). Former theocracy in the Himalaya region of central Asia. An independent kingdom from the 7th century, Tibet was under Mongol influence after 1270. In the 17th century, the grand lama of the Red Hat Lamaistic order secured both spiritual and temporal power, and Tibet remained a more or less independent state under the grand lamas until 1904, after which British influence was strong. During 1910-12, a pro-Chinese regime was in power, but Chinese troops were withdrawn following the 1912 Revolution, and Tibet again became independent. In 1950, eastern Tibet was seized by China, and in 1953, a communist government was installed in Tibet itself, supplanting the theocratic regime of the Dalai Lama. In 1956, a Tibetan revolt within China spread to Tibet, resulting in the dissolution of the Tibetan government in 1959. Although the uprising was crushed ruthlessly (charges of genocide were made against the Chinese in 1961), Tibetan nationalism remains a powerful force.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. City in northern China. A diagonal "China" handstamp was added to German stamps to furnish a seven-value issue for use in the German post office in Tientsin in 1900. The Italian post offices in Tientsin used 32 Italian stamps overprinted with the name of the city in 1917-21.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. The capital city of Georgia (Soviet Union). In 1857, the Russian viceroy of the area issued a stamp for local use.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 660,000 (1976 estimate). An island in the Malay Archipelago. Divided between the Dutch and Portuguese since the 17th century, Timor was formally partitioned in 1919. After the liberal Portuguese revolution in 1974, the Portuguese portion of Timor declared itself independent of Portugal, but was soon disputed by internal factions. Indonesia intervened to restore order and occupied the territory, organizing it as the province of Timor Timur. The Indonesian occupation was not recognized by the United Nations, and local resistance continued, provoking increasingly brutal repression by the Indonesian authorities. Responding to international pressure, Indonesia agreed in 1998 to grant East Timor a large measure of autonomy, but in an August, 1999, referendum, the great majority of Timorese voted for independence. This provoked another round of bloody fighting, as local Muslim militias, supported by the Indonesian army, attacked independence supporters. Finally, United Nations military intervention reestablished order, and in an August, 2001, referendum, the Timorese again overwhelmingly voted for complete separation from Indonesia. East Timor became independent on May 20, 2002, as the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste.
Timor-Leste, Democratic Republic of (2002-)
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 983,000 (1999). The eastern portion of the island of Timor, along with the enclave of Oscussu-Ambeno in West Timor. Formerly the Portuguese colony of Timor, under Indonesian occupation 1975-99. After years of resistance to Indonesian authorities, Timor-Leste became independent on May 20, 2002.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A village in the state of Veracruz in eastern Mexico. A single extremely scarce ½-real handstamp issue was produced there in 1856.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 25,358 (1889 estimate). An island in the West Indies, north of Trinidad. In 1889, Tobago was united with Trinidad to form the colony of Trinidad and Tobago.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 4,735,610 (1997 estimate). A republic in West Africa, bordering on the Gulf of Guinea. Togo was a German protectorate until 1914, when it was occupied by Anglo-French forces. After World War I, the territory was divided between Britain and France, under League of Nations mandate. The British portion subsequently became part of Ghana, while the French zone became the present republic (1958). Togo became fully independent in 1960. Its stamp issues since that time have been voluminous, including a host of colorful stamps and souvenir sheets on every conceivable topic. Togo's first president was assassinated in 1963 and his successor was deposed in coup in 1967. From 1967 to 1994, Togo was ruled by a repressive military dictatorship but made significant economic progress. Progress toward multiparty government has been made in the past several years.
Tokelau Islands (1948-)
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 1,503 (1995 estimate). A group of islands in the Pacific Ocean, north of Samoa. Attached to the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Tokelau Islands were placed under Western Samoan administration in 1926. On Jan. 1, 1949, they became a dependency of New Zealand.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A city in western Siberia. During the Russian Civil War, the local authorities issued a surcharged Russian stamp for use in the area.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 107,335 (1997 estimate). A group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, south of Samoa. United during the mid-19th century, Tonga came under British protection in 1900. On June 4, 1970, Tonga again became fully independent. Tonga's economy has traditionally depended on copra and bananas. The discovery of offshore oil in the 1970s and government efforts to develop tourism bode well for the country's economic future, although it still continues to rely on foreign aid. Since 1992 efforts have been made to democratize the country, but power remains in the hands of the king and aristocracy. From the late 1960s to the early '80s, Tonga issued a host of unconventional stamps, including garish self-adhesive and foil productions embossed and die-cut into many unusual shapes. Beginning in about 1981, however, Tonga returned to more traditional designs.
Transbaikal Province (1920)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. Shortly after the fall of the Kolchak regime in January 1920, a local warlord in eastern Siberia, the Ataman Semenov, proclaimed himself ruler of Siberia. Four Russian stamps were surcharged for use in his short-lived domain. He maintained control of the area around Chita and Lake Baikal until October, when his government was overthrown by partisans of the Far Eastern Republic. Semenov fled to Mongolia.
Transcaucasian Federated Republics (1923-24)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 5.9 million (1923 estimate). A former Soviet administrative district in the Caucasus, comprising Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. In 1917, a short-lived independent Transcaucasian Republic was proclaimed, but this state soon fell to invading German, Turkish and British forces. After considerable turmoil, the area was occupied by Soviet forces in 1922. In that year, the Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was proclaimed. In the following year, it joined the Soviet Union. In 1936, this unit was dissolved, and its three component states were separated.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. One of South Africa's so-called Bantustans or Bantu homelands, a scattering of nominally semi-autonomous states for otherwise disenfranchised black South Africans located on the sites of reserves set up under the policies of the white-run apartheid government prior to World War II. Transkei was the largest and most populous of these, consisting of a large tract of coastal territory on the Indian Ocean between Durban and East London and a number of smaller disjointed tracts nearby. Although not accorded international recognition as a sovereign state, Transkei's stamps were generally accepted on international mail. Transkei ceased to exist April 27, 1994.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 1.26 million (1904 estimate). Former Boer republic (officially, the South African Republic) and British colony in southern Africa; now a province of the Republic of South Africa. Boer settlements north of the Cape Colony were recognized as the independent South African Republic in 1852, but during 1877-82, British forces occupied the area. In 1881, the Transvaal again became independent, but increasing tension with the British led to the Boer War of 1899-1902, after which the country became a British colony. In 1910, the Transvaal joined with Natal, Cape Colony and the Orange River Colony to form the Union of South Africa.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A principality annexed from the Turks by Hungary in the 18th century, Transylvania was occupied and absorbed by Romania after World War I. Two issues of a distinctive (and frequently counterfeited) round overprint were applied to a total of 122 Hungarian stamps for use during 1919. During 1940-44, it was reoccupied by Hungary, finally being returned to Romania after World War II.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 6.1 million (1941 estimate). A former feudatory state in southern India. In 1949, it merged with Cochin to form Travancore-Cochin, which issued stamps for use in the new territory.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive: Population: 7.5 million. The United State of Travancore-Cochin was formed on July 1, 1949, by the merger of Travancore and Cochin, along with the formerly British-held towns of Tangasseri and Anjengo. Indian stamps have been used since April 1, 1951.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A Turkish port on the Black Sea. The Russian post office in the city used 10 stamps of the Russian Levant overprinted "Trebizonde" after 1909.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 302,171 (1960 estimate). Former non-federated Malay state under Siamese influence until a British protectorate was established in 1909. Trengganu joined the Federation of Malaya in 1948 and is now part of the Federation of Malaysia.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 263,000 (1954 estimate). A former Italian territory at the northern end of the Adriatic Sea. After World War II, it was occupied by Allied forces and, in 1954, was partitioned between Italy (the northern portion of the seaport of Trieste) and Yugoslavia (the southern section). These two zones, A and B respectively, issued stamps during 1947-54, while Trieste was a free territory zone A being under Allied administration, while zone B was administered by Yugoslavia.
Stamp-issuing status; inactive; Population: 387,000 (1889 estimate). An island in the Caribbean, off the coast of Venezuela. Taken from Spain by Great Britain in 1797, Trinidad was united with Tobago in 1889 to form the colony of Trinidad and Tobago.
Trinidad and Tobago (1913-)
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 1,273,141 (1997 estimate). Two islands in the Caribbean, off the coast of Venezuela. The two British colonies were united in 1889, Tobago becoming a ward of the united colony in 1899. From 1958-1962, the colony was a member of the West Indies Federation, becoming independent in August 1962. Trinidad has long been an oil-refining center and has begun exploiting recently discovered oil reserves of its own. It is one of the most prosperous of the Caribbean states.
Tripolitania (1923-35, 1948-50)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 570,716 (1921). Former Italian colony in North Africa. Tripolitania was occupied by Italy in 1912 and merged with Cyrenaica in 1934 to form the colony of Libia. During World War II, Libia was occupied by Anglo-French forces, and Tripolitania was occupied by the British until 1950, when it was incorporated into the independent Kingdom of Libya.
Tristan da Cunha (1952-)
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 260. A group of islands in the mid-South Atlantic Ocean. A British possession since 1816, Tristan da Cunha became a dependency of the colony of St. Helena in 1936.
Trucial States (1961-63)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 86,000. A group of Arab sheikhdoms — Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujeira, Manama, Ras al Khaima, Sharjah and Kalba, and Umm al Qiwain — in eastern Arabia, bordering on the Persian Gulf. These states were under British protection from 1892-1971, joining to form the United Arab Emirates in 1971. In June 1963, Trucial States issues were replaced by those of the individual states, which, in turn, were superseded by those of the UAE in 1972.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 9,183,097 (1997 estimate). Republic in North Africa. Tunisia was under Turkish rule from 1574 until 1881, when it became a French protectorate. After World War II, nationalist feeling increased, and in 1955, France granted Tunisia internal autonomy. In March 1956, Tunisia became independent.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 63,528,225 (1997 estimate). A republic in southeastern Europe and western Asia. The area now occupied by Turkey was the center of a number of ancient civilizations, and it remained the center of the Eastern Roman Empire for nearly a thousand years after the fall of Rome. During most of this period, it was the dominant power of the region. The Byzantine Empire, weakened by the inroads of Crusaders who found it easier to ransack Christian lands than to fight infidels, rapidly lost ground in the 13th and 14th centuries. The Ottoman Turks conquered the outlying provinces, and in 1453 they occupied Constantinople, which became their capital and the center of their own empire. During the next century, the Turks conquered southeastern Europe, North Africa and much of the Middle East. At its apex (1550-1683), the Turkish Empire stretched from the borders of Poland and the Russian steppes to the Sahara, and from Algeria to Arabia. From the late 17th century on, the Turkish Empire became increasingly weak and poorly administered, and its military power declined rapidly. During the 19th century, the territorial integrity of the state was maintained only because the European powers could not agree upon the division of the spoils. In a series of generally unsuccessful wars during 1878-1913, most of Turkey's outlying provinces became independent or were lost to its more powerful neighbors. In 1914, the Turks joined the Central Powers. Their defeat cost Turkey most of its remaining territory, and by 1919 only Asia Minor remained. At that point, it became apparent that the Allies intended to dismember Turkey altogether. In reaction to this threat, a nationalist Turkish government was formed in Ankara in 1920, with Mustafa Kemal as president. The Nationalists defeated the Greeks, whom they expelled from Western Asia Minor and Eastern Thrace and compelled the Allies to withdraw from the Dardanelles and Cilicia. The Treaty of Lausanne (1923) confirmed Turkish independence and established its borders along roughly ethnic lines. Kemal established the republic and launched an ambitious program of social reform and industrialization. Turkey remained neutral during most of World War II, declaring war on the Axis in February 1945. Since that time, it has been aligned with the West and has been a member of NATO since 1952. Tension with Greece, a fellow NATO member, over the status of Cyprus, has at times threatened to estrange Turkey from its Western allies. During the 1990s, Turkey has been plagued by ongoing armed resistance from its Kurdish minority and by the rise in recent years of a fundamentalist Islamic opposition.
Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (1974-)
Stamp-issuing status: active. The northern and northeastern 40 percent of the Mediterranean island of Cyprus, occupied by Turkey following its 1974 invasion. A buffer zone manned by United Nations peacekeeping forces separates it from the predominantly Greek southern portion of the island. Stamps were issued prior to the invasion, though an independent Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus was only proclaimed in November 1983. Although its legitimacy is not recognized by other countries, its stamps have been regularly accepted as valid on international mail.
Turks Islands (1867-1900)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 2,000 (1894 estimate). A group of islands in the West Indies, south of the Bahamas. In 1848, along with the Caicos Islands, they were transferred from Bahamian to Jamaican administration, first as a separate colony (1848-73) and later as a dependency of Jamaica (1873-1959). Stamps inscribed "Turks and Caicos Islands&quto; replaced those inscribed "Turks Islands" in 1900.
Turks and Caicos Islands (1900-)
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 14,631 (1997 estimate). Two groups of islands in the West Indies, south of the Bahamas. Ruled by Great Britain from the Bahamas after the early 18th century, the Turks and Caicos were separated as a colony in 1848 and became a dependency of Jamaica in 1873. In 1959, they became part of the Federation of the West Indies. When the federation dissolved in 1962, the Turks and Caicos again became a British crown colony.
Stamp-issuing status: inactive; Population: 2.89 million. A former grand duchy in west-central Italy. In 1859, the duke was deposed, and in 1860 Tuscany was united with Sardinia.
Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 10,297 (1997 estimate). The nine islands previously making up the Ellice Islands, Tuvalu is located in the central South Pacific south of Kiribati, north of Fiji and northeast of Australia. The islands chose independence from the Gilbert and Ellice Islands in a 1974 referendum, and Tuvalu's first stamps appeared at the beginning of 1976. In the early 1980s, Tuvalu stepped up what had been a moderate stamp-issuing program, reaching a climax in 1984-88 with the release of about 100 stamps by each of the component islands of Funafuti, Nanumaga, Nanumea, Niutao, Nui, Nukufetau, Nukulaelae and Vaitupu. Only Niulakita, population 74, lacked its own issue. Most of these issues displayed popular topics largely unrelated to the islands.
Two Sicilies (1858-62)
Stamp-issuing status: inactive. Former kingdom comprising southern Italy and Sicily. First created by the Normans in the 11th century, the kingdom passed through various hands until the Bourbon dynasty was overthrown by Garibaldi in 1860. The area was united with Sardinia in 1860, and Italian stamps have been used since 1862.
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