Stamp Issuing Entities Of The World

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Yemen (1926-)

Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 13,972,477 (1997 estimate). An ancient state in southwest Arabia. Under Turkish suzerainty until 1918, Yemen became independent after Turkey's defeat in World War I. During 1958-61, Yemen was loosely affiliated with Egypt in the United Arab States. In 1962, a military coup ousted the imam, and a pro-Egyptian republic was established. Royalist resistance continued in the interior until 1969, during which time both sides issued a vast number of stamps, most aimed strictly at stamp collectors. In April 1970, an agreement between the Yemen Arab Republic and Saudi Arabia introduced royalists into the YAR government, ending the existence of the Mutawakelite Kingdom. At about the same time, the country's stamp-issuing policy settled back to normal. In 1990 the Yemen Arab Republic and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen united to form the Republic of Yemen. Northern dominance of the new state led to resentment in the south, sparking a civil war in 1994. The north quickly defeated southern secessionist elements and restored the union, with guarantees of democratic government. Long one of the poorest states in the Mideast, Yemen is currently pursuing a program of economic reform and development.

Yemen (People's Democratic Republic) (1968-90)

Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A former republic in southwest Arabia, formed from the former British holdings in the region. Established in 1967, when the Federation of South Arabia became independent from Great Britain. Originally named the People's Republic of Southern Yemen, it was renamed the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen in 1970. South Yemen maintained close ties with the Soviet Union and supported Marxist guerrillas in northern Yemen and in Oman. In 1978, South Yemeni troops aided Ethiopian and Cuban forces against the rebels in Eritrea. In July 1978, Egypt, the Yemen Arab Republic and Saudi Arabia suspended relations with South Yemen, following a coup that brought the most radical elements of the region to power. In 1990 the two states of Yemen united to form the Republic of Yemen.

Yucatan (1924)

Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A state in southeastern Mexico. Yucatan was the center of a revolt against the central government from 1923 to 1924.

Yugoslavia (1918-)

Stamp-issuing status: active; Population: 10,611,558 (1994 estimate). A state in south Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea. Yugoslavia was formed on Dec. 1, 1918, from the union of Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Dalmatia, Montenegro and Slovenia, as the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. In 1925, the name Yugoslavia was adopted. During World War II, Yugoslavia was occupied by the Axis, with a number of German and Italian puppet states being created, while the balance of its territory was annexed by its neighbors. Resistance groups were active during the war. In late 1944, German forces were driven from the country, and a people's republic was proclaimed. The communist postwar regime, under the late Josip Broz Tito, broke with Moscow in 1948 and maintained its independence from the Soviet Union. Under Tito's direction, Yugoslavia's separatist tendencies were held in check, and the nation prospered. After Tito's death, a collective leadership with a presidency rotating between the major national groups was established that, for a decade, held the country together. Ethnic strains increased steadily, however, and in 1991 popular referendums in Croatia and Slovenia resulted in those regions announcing their intention to become independent. In June 1991, both nations declared their independence and were promptly invaded by Yugoslavian army forces, which were dominated by Serbia. Yugoslav units withdrew from Slovenia, and that country was allowed to go its own way, but fighting continued in Croatia. Yugoslav forces also attempted to repress separatist movements in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and a bitter war, marked by atrocities on both sides (though mostly by the Serbs), continued through 1995. The Dayton Accords of that year formalized the situation that forces of arms had created in the preceding four years: Croatian independence was recognized and Bosnia-Herzegovina became independent as a fragile entity, with political power (and territorial control) carefully divided among Bosnian Serbs, Muslims and Croatians, monitored by United Nations troops. Yugoslavia today has been reduced to the territories of Serbia, Montenegro, and Kosovo. Because of its atrocities against non-Serbian Bosnians and, more recently, against the Albanian population in Kosovo, the Yugoslav government has been under frequent trade embargoes through the 1990s and experienced NATO military intervention in 1999.

Yugoslavian Offices Abroad (1943-44)

Stamp-issuing status: inactive. During World War II, 14 stamps and a souvenir sheet were issued by the Yugoslav government in exile in London. These issues were valid for use aboard Yugoslav vessels fighting against the Axis powers.

Yunnan (1926-35)

Stamp-issuing status: inactive. A province of southwestern China. Regular Chinese stamps were overprinted for use within the province because of a difference in exchange rates between Yunnan and the rest of the country.

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